Hardware-based controllers are electronic devices built for specific purpose. They usually are built on array of video processing chipsets and do not have an operating system. The advantage of using a hardware video wall controller is high performance and reliability. Disadvantages include high cost and the lack of flexibility.
The most simple example of video wall controller is single input multiple outputs scaler. It accepts one video input and splits the image into parts corresponding to displays in the video wall.
Most of professional video wall displays also have built-in controller (sometimes called an integrated video matrix processor or splitter). This matrix splitter allows to “stretch” the image from a single video input across all the displays within the whole video wall (typically arranged in a linear matrix, e.g., 2x2, 4x4, etc.). These types of displays typically have loop-through output (usually DVI) that allows installers to daisy-chain all displays and feed them with the same input. Typically setup is done via the remote control and the on-screen display. It is fairly simple method to build a video wall but it has some disadvantages. First of all, it is impossible to use full pixel resolution of the video wall because the resolution cannot be bigger than the resolution of the input signal. It is also not possible to display multiple inputs at the same time